Model results compared to Press reports
"Illegal grey economy in Czech Republic about 10% of GDP”
(Hospodárské Noviny, 2 Apr 98)
Model estimates 14.8% of GDP
"$30bill illegal drugs reach the US from Mexico each year"
(Chicago Tribune, 25 Mar 98)
Model estimates $26bill laundered in Mexico each year
"More than $2bill is laundered in Poland each year"
(National Bank of Poland, reported on 15 Apr 98)
Model estimates $3bill laundered in Poland each year
"Share of shadow business in Russia's economy may range between 25% -50%"
(TASS 17 Mar 98)
Model estimates money laundering 15%
of Russian GDP
"Switzerland is implicated in $500bill of money laundering each year"
(Swiss Finance Ministry, reported on 26 Mar 98)
Model estimates $59bill - including only "first-stage" laundering
"UK black economy between 7-13% of GDP"
(Sunday Telegraph, 29 Mar 98)
Model estimates total money laundering 7.4% of UK GDP
"$50-250bn illegally moved from Russia to Western banks in 5 years"
(Russian Interior & Economics Ministries, April 99)
Model estimates $28bn per year from Russia to western banks
"Money Laundering in Belarus about 30% of GDP"
(European Humanities University, 20 Nov 98)
Model estimates 22.2% of Belarus GDP is laundered money
"Illicit funds generated and laundered in Canada per year
(Canadian Solicitor General, Sep 1998)
Model estimates $22bill generated and laundered in Canada each year,
but also that $63bn of US crime funds laundered in Canada.
"Approximately $2.7bn are laundered in Colombia each year"
(BBC Monitoring Service, Nov 98)
Model estimates $2.1bn laundered in Colombia every year
"Illicit drug sales (in the USA) generated up to 48bn a year in profits for laundering"
(Congressional hearing, April 99)
Model estimates $34.6bn generated and laundered by illicit drug trade in USA
"Illegal profits total 2-5% of world GDP or $1-3trillion"
(Dow Jones News, 12 Mar 98)
Model estimates total global money laundering $2.85 trillion
After late 1999, it became apparent that most published estimates were based on my model